It can be easy to get overwhelmed when researching equipment for podcasting, especially mics. The thing to remember is, just get started. After that, you can always upgrade, try other things out, and trade equipment.
Below is a list of some of my favorite gear to get started. Simple set ups, helpful bundles, and quality sounding audio produced at not too bad of an expense. These are only a couple of the many, many options out there. If you're able to pop into a music store to try out some different microphones, or you have a friend with one or two, I'd definitely recommend trying before buying. Ask a lot of questions, then just go for it!
Keep in mind there are a few different types of mics out there that will be helpful to know about.
USB vs. XLR
USB mics are much more popular and better sounding now than they used to be. They plug straight into your computer and will be detected right away for an easy set up.
XLR mics are the standard for professionals in audio. The quality of audio is higher but it takes a bit more equipment to get them to work with your computer. You will need an audio interface, like a Focusrite, to get set up. A few more steps, a little bit more money, but worth it if you think you'll be podcasting for a while!
Dynamic vs. Condenser
Dynamic microphones are usually what you see singers using while performing on stage. Condenser mics are typically what are used in recording studios as they are a bit more sensitive to the nuances of the human voice. This also means they'll pick up a lot more of what you may not want to hear while podcasting, like mouth noises, outside disturbances, or equipment buzzing in the room.
Either are perfectly fine for recording podcasts. Ideally, you will use a pop filter or wind screen (or both) to reduce mouth noises.